عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Numerous evidences exist about the effect of collective actions on techno-institutional transformations in different industries. Hence, although the firms and their individual efforts for achieving interests is a main driving force of techno-institutional transformations, but another important driving force is the collective actions to achieve aims beyond profitability of individual firms. In this article, by studying some selected innovation systems – German’s dye industry, United States’ cochlear implant industry, United States’ auto industry, and Taiwan’s IT industry- we show that a network of individuals and key actors (i.e. institutional entrepreneurs) are the main driving force in every techno-institutional transformation, and collective actions of this network cause the formation and evolution of new institutions. This article criticizes two well-known perspectives in explaining innovation system changes, i.e. state-based perspective and individual-based perspective.