عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
This paper is an intellectual effort to discuss the national innovation system approach as a framework for technology and innovation policy through elaborating its emphasis on inter-firm and inter-industry technological interactions, in opposite to seeing it as an institutional map. On the one hand, the paper tries to show that the linear models has not been implemented and used in the real world, but they have been merely some academic models. Therefore, there is not an empirical justification for applying those models. On the other hand, even if there were such models in the past, we would discuss that those linear models are not suitable as they largely ignores many areas of technological developments, especially in the large firms.