عنوان مقاله [English]
The difficulty of scattered studies, facilities and specializations at the level of universities and industrial centers to meet serious needs or to overcome great challenges has been the beginning of the emergence of the national laboratories. Although national laboratories have been established around the world, especially in developed countries, the United States of America has established 17 national laboratories throughout the country for about 75 years, which have played an important role in the scientific and technological developments of that country. The purpose of this article is to review the role of 17 US National Laboratories in the development of science and technology, their missions and their important achievements. The US Seventeen National Laboratories is home to leading scientists, elite engineers, skilled technical staff, and the location of advanced and expensive equipment and facilities that are beyond the capacity of American universities. Scientists at the American National Laboratories have not only been honored to receive more than 80 Nobel Prizes, but in some cases their achievements have changed the fate of some wars and brought a new way of life and interaction to human society. In addition to addressing important missions in science and technology, US National Laboratories support academic and industrial projects, train the next generation of leading scientists and engineers, and assist the government and various agencies in emergencies, assist in the transfer of technology to industrial sectors and active markets, commit to the advancement of basic science and its integration with the fields of technology, and provide strategic resources and solutions to meet national and international challenges. However, the point that should not be overlooked is that the creation and operation of such a large infrastructure requires the overcoming of major obstacles, challenges and constraints.