A Comparative Study of the Legal Nature of Companies Providing Intelligent Transportation Services (Snapp and Uber) in the Legal Systems of Iran, United States and European Union

Document Type : Original research


1 Associate Professor, Department of Private Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 MA. in Private Law, Faculty of Law, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


Due to the differences in the structure and performance of "Companies Providing Intelligent Transportation Services" with "Traditional Transportation Companies", their activities have faced many legal challenges. One of the challenges concerning these companies is their "Legal Nature". This study aims to identify the legal nature of "Companies Providing Intelligent Transportation Services" in the legal systems of Iran, the United States, and the European Union. This research is applied in terms of purpose and is written based on the descriptive-analytical method and based on library documents and resources. In this paper, Snapp and Uber Companies have been studied. Using technologies such as artificial intelligence, mobile phones, and the Internet, these companies present themselves as mere intermediaries between the driver and the passenger user; Therefore, they are not a party to the contract of carriage and will not be responsible for these services. However, the research findings, which have been obtained based on the study of the technical and legal structure of the performance of these companies, refute the mentioned claims and show their role beyond an intermediary. Using their apps, companies have strongly interfered in the relationships between their drivers and passenger users (Matching and Connecting them, Determining the price of transportation, Requesting ratings for each other, and managing them according to the mentioned ratings, etc.), which determines their legal nature. Also, Companies use their internal "Terms and Conditions" to regulate drivers and passenger users within their rules and require them to comply with their regulations. As a result, these factors have led various governments to subject the legal nature of these companies to "Transportation" regulations by enacting specific regulations or identifying them as one of the existing entities, and identifying them as "Carriers".


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