Analysis of Mode of Orchestration Structures of Formal Collaborative Network of Science and Technology in Iran

Document Type : Promotional article


1 Department of Management and Economics ,Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Management, Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University

3 Department of Management and Economics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University

4 Faculty member of Institute of Technology Studies, Tehran


Networking is performed by physically aligning its members and, in a real network, the correct placement of network components and the interaction between them are based on the network perspective and complementary capabilities for achieving continuous growth and set goals. Therefore, it is necessary to assign a role to network orchestration in the network formation and configuration, the network collaborative management, and ultimately network success. Despite a notable volume of research done in this regard, the problem of managing collaborative networks, different types of such networks, and differences between them require further study. This study aims to compare the types of orchestration structures of formal collaborative networks in Iran. To this end, based on judicial sampling, 5 selected collaborative networks were compared with by content analysis method and modeling of a valid orchestration model. The research results showed that collaborative networks in Iran followed three types of Shared orchestration structure, Lead Organization (orchestration networks), and each of these structures has different performance according to the type of collaborative networks in different areas. Therefore, when forming a network, it is necessary to select an orchestration structure that fits the characteristics of the network. Accordingly, in the end, a number of suggestions were made for each of the structures.


  • شهابی، علی، آذر، عادل، رادفر، رضا، اسدی فرد، رضا،(1398) "تحلیل نقش راهبر در شبکه های رسمی همکاری علم و فناوری در ایران" فصلنامه مدیریت توسعه فناوری، دوره 7، شماره 1، صص 9-36.
  • طباطبائیان، سیدحبیب ا..، بامدادصوفی، جهانیار، تقوا، محمدرضا، اسدی فرد، رضا، (1390). گونه شناسی ساختارهای مدیریتی شبکه‌های رسمی همکاری علم و فناوری در ایران: مطالعه چند موردی، فصلنامه علمی-پژوهشی سیاست علم و فناوری، سال سوم، شماره 3. ص 61-78.
  • Adler, P.A., Adler, P., (1998). "Observational techniques”, Eds: N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln, Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials, London, New Dlhi, Sage Publications Inc. , Thousand Oaks, p.79-109.
  • Agranoff, R., (2007). Managing Within Networks: Adding Value to Public Organizations. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
  • Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., Johnson, J. C. (2013). Analyzing social networks. London: SAGE Publications.
  • Brass, D., Joseph, G., HenrichR.G., Wenpin, T., (2004). Taking stock of networks and organizations: Amulti level perspective. Academy of Management Journal 47(1), pp. 795–817.
  • Brun, J., Tejero, J. B., Canut Ledo, P. (2008). Redes culturales. Claves para sobrevivir en la globalización. Madrid: Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional para el Desarrollo.
  • Carvalho, L., Goodyear, P., (2018). Design, learning networks and service innovation, Design Studies, 55(1), pp 27-53
  • Dal Molin, M., Masella, C., (2016). From Fragmentation to Comprehensiveness in Network Governance, Public Organization Review, 16(4), pp. 493–508
  • Dhanaraj, CH., Parkhe, A., (2006). Orchestrating innovation networks, Academy of Management Review, 31(3), pp. 659–669.
  • Finstad, I.,Pettersson, A.L.H., (2016). Building Dynamic Capabilities: A case study investigating the strengths of collaboration in Prosthetic and Orthotics education and services, Master´s Thesis in Business Administration, University College of Southeast Norway.
  • Gerlach, M.L., (1992). Alliance capitalism: Thesocial organization of Japanese business Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Gibb, J., Sune, A., Albers, S., (2017). Network learning: Episodes of interorganizational  learning towards a collective performance goal, European Management Journal, 35(1), pp. 15-25.
  • Hu, Y.,  Sørensen, OJ., (2012). Open Innovation in Networks: Specifying Orchestration Capability for SMEs, Ledelse & Erhvervsoekonomi, 77( 2), pp. 7-24
  • Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P., Olander, , Blomqvist, K., Panfilii, V., (2012). Orchestrating R&D networks: Absorptive capacity, network stability, and innovation appropriability, European Management Journal, 30(1), pp. 552– 563.
  • Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, P., Nätti, S., (2018). Orchestrator types, roles and capabilities – A framework for innovation networks, Industrial Marketing Management, 74(1), pp. 65-78.
  • Johnson, R.B., 1997, "Examining the Validity Structure of Qualitative Research", Education, 118(2), pp. 282-292.
  • Klerkx, L., Aarts, N., (2013). The interaction of multiple champions in orchestrating innovation networks: Conflicts and complementarities, Technovation 33(1), pp.193–210.
  • Lazerson, M. (1995). A new phoenix? Modern putting out in the Modena Administrative Science Quarterly, 40(1),  pp. 34–59.
  • Leven, P., Holmströma,J., Mathiassen, L., (2014). Managing research and innovation networks: Evidence from agovernment sponsored cross-industry program, Research Policy, 43 (1), pp. 156– 168.
  • , Liu, A.M.M., (2018). The evolution of government sponsored collaboration network and its impact on innovation: A bibliometric analysis in the Chinese solar PV sector, Research Policy, 47(7), pp.1295-1308.
  • Long, T. & M. Johnson, "Rigour, reliability and Validity research", Clinical Effectiveness in Nursing, vol 4 (1), 2000, p. 30-37
  • Mankevich, V., (2014). Managing Innovation Networks Exploring Coopetition Dynamics in Innovation Ecosystems, Master thesis, UMEA universitet, Department of informatics, IT Management.
  • Provan, K.G., Fish, A., Sydow, J. (2007). Interorganizational networks at the network level: a review of the empirical literature onwhole networks, J. Manage. 33(3), pp. 479–516.
  • Provan, K. G, Kenis, P., (2008). Modes of Network Governance: Structure, Management, and Effectiveness, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(2), pp. 229-252.
  • Provan K.G., Milward, H.B., (1995). A preliminary theory of inter-organizational network effectiveness: A comparative study of four community mental health systems, administrative science quarterly, 40(1), pp. 1-33.
  • Provan, K., Kimberley , R.I., Brinton, M., (2004).Cooperation and compromise: A network response to conflicting institutional pressures community mental health. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(1), pp. 489–514.
  • Steinkamp, A., (2013). Governance Models of International Networks of Cultural Cooperation, Master thesis, Humboldt-viadrina School of Governance, Berlin.
  • Tidd, J., Bessant, J., (2009) Managing Innovation; Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change (4th ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, UK
  • Uzzi, B. (1997). Social structure and competition in interfirm networks: the paradox of embeddedness, Adm. Sci. Q. 42(1), pp 35–67.
  • Weiner, B.J., Alexander, J.A., (1998). The challenges of governing public private community health partner ships. Health Care Management Review, 23(2), pp. 39–55.
  • Wixted, B., Holbrook, J., (2008). Conceptual Issues in the Evaluation of Formal Research Networks, CPROST Report 2008-01, Available from: /docs/wixtedholbrook08-1.pdf