Document Type : Review article
In today’s world where knowledge-based economy is playing a major role in prosperity and welfare of nations toward a sustainable economic development, there is an increasing demand for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of science, technology and innovation (STI) status of countries. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of science and technology (S&T) is intertwined with STI indicators and the conceptual model mapped on. The present research aid policy makers in designing national STI M&E models through providing comparison, categorization, benchmarking and systematic use of the plethora of diverse models available for monitoring and evaluation of STI systems being fragmentedly developed by countries and international organizations. In this regard, six criteria are suggested for comparison and categorization of these models, including coverage (comprehensiveness), implementation, simplicity, comparability, aims and functions (CISCAF framework). These criteria were developed by review of 22 well-known international and national models out of a research project on monitoring STI system of Iran during 2014-2016. Visual mapping of the first four criteria produced a Cartesian diagram composed of four main quadrants and 16 sub-quadrants. The aim and function criteria are composed of 7 and 8 states, respectively.