The evolution of evaluation models: from Frascati manual to innovation surveys



Models and indicators which are based on ‘Research and Development’, ‘patent’, and ‘bibliometrics’ could be considered as the oldest, best known and most widely used models and indicators among policy makers in most of the countries. Among these models and indicators, the most famous one is the Frascati manual. These R&D and patent based models (especially the Frascati manual) are mainly extracted from so-called  ‘linear Science-Push’ theories. However, these linear theories have been criticized for three decades, seriously  by well-known science, technology, and innovation scholars such as Richard Nelson, Nathan Rosenberg, and Chris Freeman. The achievement of these criticisms isthat in the two recent decades we could see the rising of  alternative models and indicators,above of which the surveys entitled‘Innovation Surveys’. The main aim of  this article is to review these emerging models more closely.In this article, first of all we will take a brief look at the history of science, technology, and innovation studies, especially the rise of major criticisms on thelinear science-push theories. After that it will be reviewedthat how the innovation surveys stood against the inefficiencies of science-push models. Then we will take a look at different types of innovation surveys, especially ‘Community Innovation Survey (CIS)’ which is the most widely accepted and standardized version of innovation surveys. Finally we will show in brief the considerable extent that these surveys are accepted and welcomed by academic community.Due to the widespread use of innovation surveys in many countries, there is an increasingly necessity to pay more attention to these surveys in our country Iran, especially as a basis  for policy making.